# 3.4. Datasets¶

A dataset is a list of (input, target) pairs that can be further split into training and testing lists.

Let’s make an example network to use as demonstration. This network will compute whether the number of 1’s in a set of 5 bits is odd.

In [1]:

from conx import Network, Layer

net = Network("Odd Network")
net.connect()
net.summary()

Using TensorFlow backend.
/usr/lib/python3.6/importlib/_bootstrap.py:219: RuntimeWarning: compiletime version 3.5 of module 'tensorflow.python.framework.fast_tensor_util' does not match runtime version 3.6
return f(*args, **kwds)

Network Summary
---------------
Network name: Odd Network
Layer name: 'input' (input)
VShape: None
Dropout: 0
Connected to: ['hidden']
Activation function: None
Dropout percent: 0
Layer name: 'hidden' (hidden)
VShape: None
Dropout: 0
Connected to: ['output']
Activation function: relu
Dropout percent: 0
Layer name: 'output' (output)
VShape: None
Dropout: 0
Activation function: sigmoid
Dropout percent: 0

conx, version 3.5.7


## 3.4.1. As a list of (input, target) pairs¶

The most straightforward method of adding input, target vectors to train on is to use a list of (input, target) pairs. First we define a function that takes a number and returns the bitwise representation of it:

In [2]:

def num2bin(i, bits=5):
"""
Take a number and turn it into a list of bits (most significant first).
"""
return [int(s) for s in (("0" * bits) + bin(i)[2:])[-bits:]]

In [3]:

num2bin(23)

Out[3]:

[1, 0, 1, 1, 1]


Now we make a list of (input, target) pairs:

In [4]:

patterns = []

for i in range(2 ** 5):
inputs = num2bin(i)
targets = [int(sum(inputs) % 2 == 1.0)]
patterns.append((inputs, targets))


Pair set 5 looks like:

In [5]:

patterns[5]

Out[5]:

([0, 0, 1, 0, 1], [0])


We set the network to use this dataset:

In [6]:

patterns

Out[6]:

[([0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0]),
([0, 0, 0, 0, 1], [1]),
([0, 0, 0, 1, 0], [1]),
([0, 0, 0, 1, 1], [0]),
([0, 0, 1, 0, 0], [1]),
([0, 0, 1, 0, 1], [0]),
([0, 0, 1, 1, 0], [0]),
([0, 0, 1, 1, 1], [1]),
([0, 1, 0, 0, 0], [1]),
([0, 1, 0, 0, 1], [0]),
([0, 1, 0, 1, 0], [0]),
([0, 1, 0, 1, 1], [1]),
([0, 1, 1, 0, 0], [0]),
([0, 1, 1, 0, 1], [1]),
([0, 1, 1, 1, 0], [1]),
([0, 1, 1, 1, 1], [0]),
([1, 0, 0, 0, 0], [1]),
([1, 0, 0, 0, 1], [0]),
([1, 0, 0, 1, 0], [0]),
([1, 0, 0, 1, 1], [1]),
([1, 0, 1, 0, 0], [0]),
([1, 0, 1, 0, 1], [1]),
([1, 0, 1, 1, 0], [1]),
([1, 0, 1, 1, 1], [0]),
([1, 1, 0, 0, 0], [0]),
([1, 1, 0, 0, 1], [1]),
([1, 1, 0, 1, 0], [1]),
([1, 1, 0, 1, 1], [0]),
([1, 1, 1, 0, 0], [1]),
([1, 1, 1, 0, 1], [0]),
([1, 1, 1, 1, 0], [0]),
([1, 1, 1, 1, 1], [1])]

In [7]:

net.dataset.load(patterns)

In [9]:

net.dataset.summary()


Dataset Split: * training : 32 * testing : 0 * total : 32

Input Summary: * shape : [(5,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(1,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

You can use the default dataset and add one pattern at a time. Consider the task of training a network to determine if the number of inputs is even (0) or odd (1). We could add inputs one at a time:

In [10]:

net.dataset.clear()

In [11]:

net.dataset.add([0, 0, 0, 0, 1], [1])
net.dataset.add([0, 0, 0, 1, 1], [0])
net.dataset.add([0, 0, 1, 0, 0], [1])

In [12]:

net.dataset.clear()

In [13]:

for i in range(2 ** 5):
inputs = num2bin(i)
targets = [int(sum(inputs) % 2 == 1.0)]

In [14]:

net.dataset.summary()


Dataset Split: * training : 32 * testing : 0 * total : 32

Input Summary: * shape : [(5,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(1,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

In [15]:

net.dataset.inputs[13]

Out[15]:

[0.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0]

In [16]:

net.dataset.targets[13]

Out[16]:

[1.0]

In [17]:

net.reset()

In [17]:

net.train(epochs=5000, accuracy=.75, tolerance=.2, report_rate=100, plot=True)

========================================================================
|  Training |  Training
Epochs |     Error |  Accuracy
------ | --------- | ---------
# 4581 |   0.04895 |   0.75000

In [19]:

net.test(tolerance=.2, show=True)

========================================================
Testing validation dataset with tolerance 0.2...
# | inputs | targets | outputs | result
---------------------------------------
0 | [[0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.50] | X
1 | [[0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.55] | X
2 | [[0.00,0.00,0.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.49] | X
3 | [[0.00,0.00,0.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.55] | X
4 | [[0.00,0.00,1.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.39] | X
5 | [[0.00,0.00,1.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.51] | X
6 | [[0.00,0.00,1.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.40] | X
7 | [[0.00,0.00,1.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.50] | X
8 | [[0.00,1.00,0.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.46] | X
9 | [[0.00,1.00,0.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.50] | X
10 | [[0.00,1.00,0.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.51] | X
11 | [[0.00,1.00,0.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.54] | X
12 | [[0.00,1.00,1.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.40] | X
13 | [[0.00,1.00,1.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.47] | X
14 | [[0.00,1.00,1.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.42] | X
15 | [[0.00,1.00,1.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.50] | X
16 | [[1.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.45] | X
17 | [[1.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.51] | X
18 | [[1.00,0.00,0.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.48] | X
19 | [[1.00,0.00,0.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.56] | X
20 | [[1.00,0.00,1.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.36] | X
21 | [[1.00,0.00,1.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.47] | X
22 | [[1.00,0.00,1.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.38] | X
23 | [[1.00,0.00,1.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.47] | X
24 | [[1.00,1.00,0.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.40] | X
25 | [[1.00,1.00,0.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.44] | X
26 | [[1.00,1.00,0.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.45] | X
27 | [[1.00,1.00,0.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.50] | X
28 | [[1.00,1.00,1.00,0.00,0.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.35] | X
29 | [[1.00,1.00,1.00,0.00,1.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.40] | X
30 | [[1.00,1.00,1.00,1.00,0.00]] | [[0.00]] | [0.40] | X
31 | [[1.00,1.00,1.00,1.00,1.00]] | [[1.00]] | [0.47] | X
Total count: 32
correct: 0
incorrect: 32
Total percentage correct: 0.0


## 3.4.3. Dataset inputs and targets¶

Inputs and targets in the dataset are represented in the same format as given (as lists, or lists of lists). These formats are automattically converted into an internal format.

In [20]:

ds = net.dataset

In [21]:

ds.inputs[17]

Out[21]:

[1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0]


To see/access the internal format, use the underscore before inputs or targets. This is a numpy array. conx is designed so that you need not have to use numpy for most network operations.

In [22]:

ds._inputs[0][17]

Out[22]:

array([ 1.,  0.,  0.,  0.,  1.], dtype=float32)


## 3.4.4. Built-in datasets¶

In [2]:

from conx import Dataset

Using TensorFlow backend.
/usr/lib/python3.6/importlib/_bootstrap.py:219: RuntimeWarning: compiletime version 3.5 of module 'tensorflow.python.framework.fast_tensor_util' does not match runtime version 3.6
return f(*args, **kwds)
conx, version 3.5.7

In [2]:

ds = Dataset.get('mnist')
ds

Out[2]:


Dataset Split: * training : 70000 * testing : 0 * total : 70000

Input Summary: * shape : [(28, 28, 1)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(10,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

In [3]:

ds = Dataset.get('cifar10')
ds

Out[3]:


Dataset name: CIFAR-10

Original source: https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~kriz/cifar.html

The CIFAR-10 dataset consists of 60000 32x32 colour images in 10 classes, with 6000 images per class.

The classes are completely mutually exclusive. There is no overlap between automobiles and trucks. “Automobile” includes sedans, SUVs, things of that sort. “Truck” includes only big trucks. Neither includes pickup trucks.

Dataset Split: * training : 60000 * testing : 0 * total : 60000

Input Summary: * shape : [(32, 32, 3)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(10,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

In [3]:

ds = Dataset.get("gridfonts")
ds

Out[3]:


Dataset name: Gridfonts

Dataset Split: * training : 7462 * testing : 0 * total : 7462

Input Summary: * shape : [(25, 9)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(25, 9)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

In [4]:

ds = Dataset.get('cifar100')
ds

Out[4]:


Dataset name: CIFAR-100

Original source: https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~kriz/cifar.html

This dataset is just like the CIFAR-10, except it has 100 classes containing 600 images each. The 100 classes in the CIFAR-100 are grouped into 20 superclasses. Each image comes with a “fine” label (the class to which it belongs) and a “coarse” label (the superclass to which it belongs). Here is the list of classes in the CIFAR-100:

Superclass Classes
aquatic mammals beaver, dolphin, otter, seal, whale
fish aquarium fish, flatfish, ray, shark, trout
flowers orchids, poppies, roses, sunflowers, tulips
food containers bottles, bowls, cans, cups, plates
fruit and vegetables apples, mushrooms, oranges, pears, sweet peppers
household electrical devices clock, computer keyboard, lamp, telephone, television
household furniture bed, chair, couch, table, wardrobe
insects bee, beetle, butterfly, caterpillar, cockroach
large carnivores bear, leopard, lion, tiger, wolf
large natural outdoor scenes cloud, forest, mountain, plain, sea
large omnivores and herbivores camel, cattle, chimpanzee, elephant, kangaroo
medium-sized mammals fox, porcupine, possum, raccoon, skunk
non-insect invertebrates crab, lobster, snail, spider, worm
people baby, boy, girl, man, woman
reptiles crocodile, dinosaur, lizard, snake, turtle
small mammals hamster, mouse, rabbit, shrew, squirrel
trees maple, oak, palm, pine, willow
vehicles 1 bicycle, bus, motorcycle, pickup truck, train
vehicles 2 lawn-mower, rocket, streetcar, tank, tractor

Dataset Split: * training : 60000 * testing : 0 * total : 60000

Input Summary: * shape : [(32, 32, 3)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(100,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

## 3.4.5. Dataset operations¶

Dataset.split() will divide the dataset between training and testing sets. You can provide split an integer (to divide at a specific point), or a floating-point value, to divide by a percentage.

In [28]:

ds.split(20)

In [29]:

ds.split(.5)

In [30]:

ds.slice(10)

In [31]:

ds.shuffle()

In [32]:

ds.chop(5)

In [33]:

ds.summary()


Dataset Split: * training : 3 * testing : 2 * total : 5

Input Summary: * shape : [(32, 32, 3)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

Target Summary: * shape : [(100,)] * range : [(0.0, 1.0)]

These functions are subject to change to an API which is more general:

In [34]:

ds.set_targets_from_inputs()

In [35]:

ds.set_inputs_from_targets()

In [36]:

# ds.set_targets_from_labels()

In [37]:

ds.inputs.shape

Out[37]:

[(32, 32, 3)]

In [39]:

ds.inputs.reshape(0, (32 * 32 * 3,))

In [40]:

ds.inputs.shape

Out[40]:

[(3072,)]


## 3.4.6. Dataset direct manipulation¶

You can also set the internal format directly, given that it is in the correct format:

• use list of columns for multi-bank inputs or targets
• use np.array(vectors) for single-bank inputs or targets
In [41]:

import numpy as np

inputs = []
targets = []

for i in range(2 ** 5):
v = num2bin(i)
inputs.append(v)
targets.append([int(sum(v) % 2 == 1.0)])

net = Network("Even?", 5, 2, 2, 1)

In [42]:

net.test(tolerance=.2)

========================================================